(1) Construction Management
Accomplishments achieved in the area of construction management are well-known both domestically and internationally. Notably, the team proposed an innovative model with five major elements of process-based management, life-cycle management, knowledge management, resource allocation hierarchy, and target-based management. The model was successfully adopted in actual construction projects.
Construction Safety: In the area of construction safety, a series of studies were conducted, covering structural safety of temporary works, safety management systems, site safety in domestic and international construction market, as well as safety culture in constructions. Based on these studies, suggested ways forward were recommended for legislative re regarding construction safety in China. Also, the “Safety Culture Interaction Model” was proposed and successfully implemented in the project “Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) Consultancy Services”, contracted by Land Transport Authority (LTA) in Singapore.
Project Finance and Risk Management: In the area of project finance (BT/BOT/PFI/PPP) and risk management, the “Alien Eyes” risk model was established. Principles, process, mitigation as well as qualitative and quantitative analysis methods for associated risk management were proposed. Prof. Shouqing WANG was invited to give a large number of speeches, seminars, and lectures. His research has been broadly cited, distributed and also applied in industry practices.
Partnering: Partnering and its principles for implementation have been introduced increasingly to enhance efficiency of project delivery. However, little research has been undertaken to identify the rationale behind its application. A partnering model was developed, which illustrates the relationships between the critical success factors (CSFs) of partnering and demonstrated their importance to construction projects. Accordingly, a hydropower enterprise management model and a partnering-based risk management model were developed. The team also utilized the Balanced Scorecard approach for perance assessment to improve project efficiency of the construction industry.
Regulation Re: In the area of public affairs in the construction industry, studies resulted in a contract bonding system, the re framework and institutional design of the construction market regulation system, the regulation re strategies as well as policies to facilitate design and construction coordination.
Industrial Re: The theory of industrial organization was adopted in the construction studies and an analytical approach was proposed accordingly for the assessment of industrial structure, enterprise behavior and perance. The research achievements were further implemented in the 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans developed by Beijing Construction Committee.
(2) Construction Engineering and Technology
A series of studies have been conducted on nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete structures, advanced concrete manufacturing, dam construction technology, safety control of concrete structures during construction, construction safety of high-rise buildings, concrete quality through process control, knowledge management, and construction product integrity.
RC Zoning Procedure Method: In the field of nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, one notable achievement is the quantitative approach for the size effect on behavior of reinforced concrete for shear failure, which precisely predicts seismic response of RC structures. The RC Zoning Procedure Method was proposed to describe the nonlinear interaction of ductile material (reinforced concrete) and brittle material (plain concrete) and damage localization in RC structures. This method was employed in seismic analysis of underground structures in the Great Hanshin earthquake. One of the team members won the Award of JSCE (Tokyo, 1999) and the Nishino Prize of East-Asian Pacific Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction (Taipei, 2008). Their achievements were recognized and used by TECPO, the University of Tokyo, and IWHR.
Rock Filled Concrete: In the field of advanced concrete technology and dam construction technology, a new type of concrete, Rock-Filled Concrete (RFC), was developed. Three national patents have been granted with this technology. The RFC technology was found to be beneficial to hydraulic and hydropower construction projects, including enhancement of efficiency, cost reduction and energy conservation. The RFC technology is widely recognized by large construction companies, such as the State Grid Corporation of China, China Huaneng Group, and China Three Gorges Corporation. The application of RFC technology in Xiangjiaba hydropower station has been shown to save approximately 30 days of construction, and reduce the direct cost by three million RMB.
Safety Control of Concrete Structures: In the field of safety control of concrete structures, the team discovered load re-distribution of concrete structures during construction process, by conducting a continuous monitoring of internal force on site. A structural characteristic parameter approach was developed, enabling the explanation of in-situ measurement, experiment and approximate calculation. Construction engineers can use this approach to estimate load distributions and make correct decisions to ensure construction safety.
Control Method for Steel-Concrete Composite Structures: A quality control method for steel-concrete composite structures was developed. This method emphasizes control of concrete casting quality in the construction process. This method was successfully applied in high-rise projects with concrete-filled steel tubular structures in China. Mechanical behavior of concrete-filled stiffened thin-walled steel tubular columns and the stability of the hollow steel tubes during construction were studied. The research achievements have been introduced to several design codes on steel-concrete composite structures.
Semantic Web Technology: The team also applied the Semantic Web Technology in the reasoning and the retrieval of knowledge of construction projects. A research paper on Taxonomies with Regulations won the best paper award of the 9th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research. The research work contributed to the Semantic Web Technology and assured ination consistency throughout a project’s life cycle. The team promoted the applications of Building Ination Modeling in the construction industry.
4D Computer Aided Construction: The research group was the first in China to start the research on 4D computer aided construction and construction collaborative systems. The construction collaborative working plat, including structural analysis during construction, site management, document management, drafting management, visual monitoring on construction, visual meeting and decision supporting, was developed and applied in many landmark projects such as the National Stadium, the West Tower of Guangzhou and the Bridge of Qingdao Bay.
(3) Sustainable Development of Infrastructures
The team is conducting a large amount of research in areas such as sustainability, including building life cycle assessment, sustainable construction and sustainable urban development. Many projects were funded by NSFC and MOHURD and many of the research results were published in peer-reviewed journals. Based on the achievements, the team also developed an assessment framework for the sustainability, and the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans for the Beijing Construction Committee. Some research outcomes helped project stakeholders to adapt themselves to the dramatic change in the construction industry.
Life Cycle Assessment: The cutting edge research in building LCA demonstrated the research team’s active involvement in China. The Building Environmental Perance Analysis System (BEPAS) was developed, which consisted of equipment operation, building materials and project site. The results were published in peer-reviewed journals such as Building and Environment, Construction Economics and Management, etc. The achievements were also referred to as an important foundation of national standards issued by the MOHURD.
Green Construction and Health Impact: The research team developed an approach for the evaluation of green construction with a breakdown structure for data collection of energy resources and pollutant discharge during construction processes. An environmental impact assessment framework and a metric system were developed, covering typical construction equipment and ancillary materials. The impact of the construction process (e.g. construction dust) on health of craft workers was considered in the evaluation model. The health impact was converted to monetary values and its relationship with various deleterious substances was further modeled, making the BEPAS more comprehensive. The results were published on Building and Environment, and also implemented in housing projects and a low-carbon construction research project sponsored by the CAE.
Waste Recycling: Evaluation methods for solid waste management and recycling were concluded from environmental and economic perspectives. A model leveraging the benefits of various stakeholders regarding waste recycling was also studied with fruitful results. The research results were then applied in real projects.
Labor-Housing-Market Equilibrium Model: In the area of sustainable city development, studies were conducted concerning urban economics and environmental economics. A labor market-housing market equilibrium model was developed in a system of open cities to estimate the price premium for environmental amenities in the context of a transitional economy. The research achievement “The Greenness of China” was published in Journal of Economic Geography and was cited by New York Times and Vox.
Life Cycle Carbon Emission-Cost Analysis Model: From the legislative perspective, a building life cycle carbon emission-cost analysis model and actual database are currently under development in a research project sponsored by CAE. The main objectives of the research are: (1) to identify potential reduction of carbon emission in various construction phases; (2) to clarify the rights and obligations of project stakeholders; (3) to make recommendations for legislations, codes, and standards.
(4) Real Estate Studies
The research team of Real Estate Studies (RES) has directly participated in national housing policy, land using in China and has undertaken a considerable amount of theoretical and empirical studies regarding development of the housing industry and management of the housing market. The RES was also involved in development of the Chinese real estate and land appraisal system. The team members won the Best Paper Award by the American Real Estate Society (ARES) and the Outstanding Perance Award from the International Real Estate Society (IRES). The RES has conducted many research projects sponsored by the NSFC, National Social Science Foundation of China and various central and local government agencies. Many research papers were published in highly valued peer-reviewed journals.
Housing Price Index: In the area of housing economics, the research team focused on housing price, housing demand, and housing market effectiveness. A quality-consistent housing price index based on the Hedonic Pricing method was developed. Since 2006, the index has been applied to monthly measurement of housing price levels for 40 major cities in China. The research achievements served as a critical foundation to the supervision of housing market and future studies of policy in China.
Housing Price Formation: A series of studies on housing price ation and dynamic perance were conducted. Part of the research results on the Swedish housing market were quoted by the Central Bank of Sweden and the Norwegian Central Bank of Norway. The team carried out research on market efficiency and influential factors on transaction costs. The relationship between local governments and developers were investigated. The research regarding the housing problem of migrant workers was published in the peer-reviewed Chinese journal Economic Research.
Housing Location Choice Behavior: In the area of urban area economics, the research team studied the housing location selection behavior of individuals and enterprises, with consideration of the interactions among the housing market, labor market, and transportation system. The research team developed theoretical and empirical models which include key characteristics of the space realignment of Chinese cities, and identified the space efficiency and related policies. Moreover, the relationship between the housing market and urban development was also examined and related theoretical models were developed accordingly. The theory and evidence discovered in their research highlighted the political implications on harmonizing the development of Chinese urban areas. The research results were published in peer-reviewed international journals such as Journal of Urban Economics, and Regional Science and Urban Economics.
Housing Affordability: In the area of housing policy, the research team identified a new measurement of housing affordability in China. The research team also provided comprehensive studies on housing policy for low income households in China from data on land supply, tax policy and financial support. The role of central and local governments and participation of private sector on affordable housing policy were also investigated. The research contributed to sustainable development pattern of affordable housing from several important aspects including construction, distribution and management of affordable housing as well as the related laws and regulations.